Blues music began as the primary artistic expression of a minority culture: It was created mainly by black working class men
and women. Through its simplicity, sensuality, poetry, humor and irony, it mirrored the qualities and the attitudes of blacks
in America for three-quarters of a century.
The definition and most important extra-musical meaning of "blues"
refers to a state of mind. But the blues did not enter popular American usage until after the Civil War as a description of
music that expressed such a mental state among African Americans. It is generally understood that a blues performer sings
or plays to rid himself of "the blues."
As the blues was created largely by illiterate musicians,
scarcely any of whom could read music, improvisation, both verbal and musical, was an essential part of it, though not to
the extent that it was in jazz. To facilitate improvisation, a number of patterns evolved, of which the most familiar is the
12-bar blues, Apparently, this form crystallized in the first decade of the 20th century as a three-line stanza in which the
blues singer sings two lines of the same lyrics. While singing these two lines, the singer must come up with the last line
of the verse to coordinate with the other two. The simplicity of blues lyrics gave the blues singer freedom to express emotion
while improvising. This structure was supported by a fixed harmonic progression, which all blues performers knew and which
they played almost automatically.
From the Delta to Chicago
In its early years, the blues was wholly an
African-American art form. Influential in its development were the collective unaccompanied work songs of the plantation culture,
which followed a responsorial "leader-and-chorus" form with an emphasis on rhythm and meter similar in nature to
the marching songs of the military.
Work songs increasingly took the form of solo calls or "hollers"
comparatively free in form but close to blues in feeling. The vocal style of the blues probably derived from the holler. One
of the most famous work song leaders was Huddy Ledbetter, better known as "Ledbelly." As blues increased in popularity,
Ledbelly moved from leading work songs to singing the blues and was very successful at it.
of the Blues" W.C. Handy first heard the music in 1903 in the Mississippi Delta. By the late 1920s, the blues were being
heard throughout the Delta at fish fries and juke joints, performed by such bluesmen as Charley Patton, Son House, Willie
Brown, Bo Carter and the Mississippi Sheiks and Tommy Johnson. Delta bluesman John Lee Hooker is famous for "Boogie Chillun",
first recorded for VeeJay records in 1948.
In the early 1930s the most popular blues singer was Leroy Can, a pianist
who was accompanied with uncanny rapport by the guitarist Scrapper Blackwell. Their approach had a strong southern character,
but their lyrics had a considered, reflective quality, colored by disappointment rather than bitterness and reflecting the
mood of many of their listeners. Carr was widely copied, and his classic performances, such as "How Long, How Long Blues"
and "Midnight Hour Blues" were recorded by numerous singers, even in the 1970s long after his death in 1935.
In the 1940s, the heart of the blues scene shifted to Chicagos south side. There, greats like Elmore James, Willie
Mabon, Jimmy Rogers, Sonny Boy Williamson, Otis Spann, Willie Dixon, Muddy Waters and Howlin Wolf. Songs like "Hoochie
Coochie Man", "Mannish Boy", "Sloppy Drunk", and "Dont Start Me Talkin" are representative
of this time.
Who Plays the Blues?
There is an ongoing debate among blues enthusiasts: Can people who are
not African American truly enjoy and/or play the blues? Purists insist that white people cannot truly appreciate the blues,
while others argue that the feeling within blues music comes from personal hardship a lesson learned by people of all backgrounds.
Many rock n roll bands mention bluesmen as early influences. When the Beatles arrived in the United States,
they wanted to meet Muddy Waters and Bo Didley (and were astonished that mainstream America was not aware of these artists).
The Rolling Stones took their name from the song by Muddy Waters and Keith Richards said that early on, their aim was to turn
people on to Muddy Waters. Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page, Alvin Lee, Steve Miller and Jimi Hendrix also paid homage
to the great bluesmen through their music.